What is sepsis? — Sepsis is a serious illness that happens when an infection travels through the whole body. Sepsis can happen in anyone, but it is more likely to happen in people who:
Are older or bedridden
Are staying in the hospital or have had recent surgery
Have thin tubes such as catheters or IVs in their body
Have a weak infection-fighting system (for example because they are being treated for cancer)
Sepsis can come from an infection in any part of the body, but it is most often linked to infections in the:
Lungs (called pneumonia)
Kidneys (called urinary tract infection)
Skin (called cellulitis)
Bowel (called colitis) – Sepsis caused by colitis is especially likely after a course of antibiotics.
Sepsis needs to be treated quickly. If it is not treated, it can become severe. When this happens, it is called "septic shock." Septic shock is life-threatening.
What are the symptoms of sepsis? — Symptoms of sepsis can include:
A fever – But some people get a low body temperature instead of a fever.
Breathing that is very fast
A heartbeat that is very fast
Symptoms of severe sepsis can include:
Acting confused or feeling light-headed or dizzy
Cool clammy skin or red flushed skin
Urinating much less than usual
Different types of skin rashes – One type is a lacy, purple rash that is usually on the legs, but can also be on the arms. Another rash looks like red or purple spots on the skin that do not go away when touched. These spots are usually on the chest and legs, but can also be in other areas.
Belly pain or cramping with severe diarrhea
Other problems with the heart, kidneys, or brain
People who have septic shock have many of the symptoms listed above, plus their blood pressure gets low and they sometimes pass out.
Should I see the doctor or nurse? — Yes, as soon as possible. Sepsis can develop when you are at home or in the hospital. In either case, you (or the person with you) should call the doctor or nurse if you:
Have a fever and chills, and have any of the symptoms above or look very sick
Have had a recent surgery or hospital stay, and now are sick or have an infection
If your doctor or nurse is unable to see you immediately, or you can't reach him or her, you should go to the nearest emergency room.
Will I have tests? — Probably. Your doctor will learn about your symptoms and do an exam. They will likely do tests to look for an infection, see if the infection has spread to your blood, and see how serious your condition is. These tests can include:
Blood tests, including tests called "blood cultures"
Lab tests – For example, if you are coughing up mucus, your doctor can test your mucus for bacteria.
X-rays or other imaging tests – Imaging tests create pictures of the inside of your body. These might include a test to look at your heart, called an echocardiogram (or "echo" for short).
How is sepsis treated? — Sepsis and septic shock are usually treated in the hospital with:
Antibiotics that go in your vein through a thin tube called an "IV"
Fluids that go in your vein through an IV
Other medicines to treat your condition – For example, if your blood pressure is too low, your doctor can give you medicine to raise it.
If an IV or catheter in your body is causing your sepsis, your doctor might take the IV or catheter out.
Some people are also treated with surgery. If you have a severe infection of the skin or tissue under the skin, your doctor might do surgery to remove the infected areas.
Some people with severe septic shock might need a blood transfusion. A blood transfusion is when a person gets blood that was given (donated) by another person. But this is rare.
Can sepsis be prevented? — You can help prevent sepsis by:
Getting treated right away if you get an infection
Avoiding infections – One way to avoid infections is to get the vaccines your doctor recommends. Vaccines can prevent serious or deadly infections. If you have a child, make sure they get the recommended vaccines, too. It can also help to try to avoid being around people who have flu or cold symptoms, and to wash your hands frequently.
All topics are updated as new evidence becomes available and our peer review process is complete.
This topic retrieved from UpToDate on: Mar 30, 2020.
Topic 16928 Version 11.0
Release: 28.2.2 - C28.105
© 2020 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
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